Alvin Camba is a PhD Candidate in sociology at Johns Hopkins University. He works on elite relations around new capital, illicit capital inflows, and the political economy of natural resources. More information about his work can be found on his website (

Between Economic and Social Exclusions: Chinese Online Gambling Capital in the Philippines

Under Rodrigo Duterte’s administration, Chinese capital has increasingly flowed into the Philippines. Much of this new investment has been in online gambling firms—a peculiar type of capital that is not involved in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and is even criminalised by the Chinese state. Drawing from field research in Metro Manila, this essay interrogates the anti-Chinese sentiments among Filipinos that have been stoked by online gambling firms. In examining the broader social reverberations of Chinese capital on Philippine society, it argues that Chinese online gambling capital generates specific forms of economic and social exclusions.

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